Category Archives: Structural Design

Haul Road Structural Design covers the selection of materials, defining a mechanistic structural model and design loads

Structural Design

Haul road structural design concerns the ability of the road to carry the imposed loads without the need for excessive maintenance or rehabilitation.  Haul roads deteriorate with time due to the interactive effect of traffic load and specific sub-grade (in-situ) material strengths and structural thicknesses.

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) structural design method has been widely applied to the design of mine haul roads in which untreated materials are used.  However, when multi-layered roads are considered in conjunction with a base layer of selected blasted waste rock, a mechanistic approach is more often appropriate.

Haul Road Structural Design: typical wheel layout of haul trucks
Although each wheel of the haul truck carries about the same load, the adjacent rear wheels combine to give the critical design loading.

For further details, see the book:

Mining Haul Roads: Theory and Practice
1st Edition
Roger Thompson, Rodrigo Peroni, Alex T. Visser

CRC Press
Published December 11, 2018
Reference – 294 Pages
ISBN 9781138589629
CAT# K386669

CIRCLY 7.0 software fully automates mechanistic design of unpaved mine haul road pavements trafficked by heavy mine vehicles and dump trucks etc.
See these pages for an overview of the CIRCLY 7.0 Haul Road Pavement Design Feature.

Additional references are here.


References: Structural Design of Mine Haul Roads

These references cover structural design of mine haul roads.

AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 1982. AASHTO Materials, Part 1, Specifications. Washington, DC., USA.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 1998. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Sec 4, Vol 04.08, West Conshohocken, PA., USA: ASTM International.

Atkinson, T. and Walton, G. 1983 Design and Layout of Haul Roads for Surface Mines. Surface Mining and Quarrying – Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Surface Mining Symposium. Bristol. pp 139-149

AUSTROADS. 2009. Review of Relationship to Predict Subgrade Modulus From CBR. National Association of Road Transport and Transport Authorities of Australia, AUSTROADS Publication AP-T130/09, Sydney, NSW., Australia.

Boyd, W.K. and Foster, C.R. 1950. Design curves for very heavy multiple wheel assemblies. In Development of CBR Flexible Pavement Design Methods For Airfields. Symp. Trans. ASCE, v115, paper 2406, pp534-546.

Collins, J. L. Fytas, K. and Singhal, R. K. 1986. Design, Construction and Maintenance of Surface Mine Haulage Roads. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geotechnical Stability in Surface Mining, Calgary, Alberta. Pp 39-49

CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 2001. MePADS pavement analysis and design software, version 1.1, CSIR Transportek, Pretoria, South Africa. Accessed 26/10/2010.

FHWA. 1985. ELSYM5A: Interactive version 5A users guide. FHWA, US Dept of Transportation.

Kaufman, W.W. and Ault, J.C. 1977. The design of surface mine haul roads a manual. USDOI Information circular 8758.

Mincad Systems. 2015. CIRCLY 7.0. Mincad Systems Pty Ltd, Richmond, Vic., Australia.

Morgan, J.R., Tucker, J.S. and McInnes, D.B. 1994. A mechanistic design approach for unsealed mine haul roads. Pavement Design and Performance in Road Construction 1412:69-81.

Morgan, J. R. Tucker, J. S. and McInnes, D. B. 1994. Mechanistic Design Approach for Unsealed Mine Haul Roads. Proceedings of the 17th ARRB. Conference. Part 2 (of 7). ARRB. pp 69-81

References: General Concepts in Mine Haulage and Road Design

These references cover general issues related to mine haul road design.

CATERPILLAR. 2009. A Reference Guide to Mining Machine Applications. Field Guide. AEXQ0030-02. Peoria, Ill., USA.

Gilewicz, P. 2001. What Goes Where: Application of large trucks in major mineral markets. World Mining Equipment. 25:8.

Gilewicz, P. 2006. The market for large mining trucks & loading equipment: What’s happened & what’s ahead. CD-ROM. Mining Media Haulage and Loading Conference, Phoenix, Az., USA, May 24-26.

Lay, M.G. 1998. Handbook of Road Technology Volume 1 Planning and Pavements. 3rd Ed. Gordon and Beach Science Publishers.

Minerals Council of Australia (MCA). Mobile equipment incident causation survey (MEICS) 2005-2006 survey findings and recommendation. Available at

MineMap, 2008. Accessed March 2011

Nebot, EM. 2007. Surface mining: main research issues for autonomous operations. Robotics Research, STAR publication No. 28, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp268-280.

Parreira, J and Meech, J. 2010. Autonomous vs manual haulage trucks – how mine simulation contributes to future haulage system developments. CIM Meeting 2010, Vancouver-BC, Canada.

Pukkila, J and Sarkka, P. 2000. Intelligent mine technology program and its implementation. Proc. Massmin 2000, Brisbane, Australia.

Thompson, RJ. 2011. Mine Road Design and Management In Autonomous Hauling Operations: A Research Roadmap. AUSIMM FutureMine Conference 2011, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Thompson, RJ. 2011. Building better haul roads. Engineering and Mining Journal, Mining Media International, June 2011, pp48-53.

Thompson, RJ. 2011. Design, construction and management of haul roads. In: SME Mining Engineering Handbook. Ed. Darling. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, INC (SME), Lyttelton, Co. USA., pp957-976

Yoder, EJ. and Witczak, MW. 1975. Principles of Pavement Design. John Wiley & Sons Inc.,USA.